Hans Christian Andersen and Astrid Lindgren

By Curator Ane Grum-Schwensen

"I was introduced to H.C. Andersen's world of fairy tales around the age of five. Mother was reading Little Claus and Big Claus. The impact it had on me was indelible; I had never heard anything so wondrous, and laughed deeply at Little Claus's quirky cleverness. To me it was completely fair that Little Claus cheated Big Claus into drowning himself." (Astrid Lindgren).










Two Anniversaries

Denmark - and Odense -  are back to normal after the great anniversary in 2005, which for better and worse caused storms in the media and cash boxes.

2005 was the the bicentenary of the birth of Hans Christian Andersen. Odense Bys Museer received a generous grant from the City Council, which enabled a complete renovation of The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in the years prior to the celebration.
Without the anniversary and the interest in the fairy tale writer's birthday, such extensive renovation and modernization of the existing exhibitions would not have been possible.

Vimmerby celebrated their anniversary in 2007: namely the centenary of the birth of Astrid Lindgren. Extensive preparations were carried out establishing a new research centre, Astrid Lindgrens Näs, and Astrid Lindgren Gården - formerly connected to the amusement park Astrid Lindgren's World, launched new exhibitions in the old vicarage and Lindgren's childhood home.

Needless so say, we handle celebrations in our own manner and we establish new and permanent exhibitions differently. Individual results and experiences will come of the efforts. The conference for the Nordic literary museums - to be held in Odense and Copenhagen in 2008 - enables us to compare and define our different experience from these two anniversaries.

The two writers are not only very different; they are also separated in time by some hundred years. The poor and lonely childhood of H.C. Andersen in Odense at the beginning of the 19th century are worlds apart from the safe and extroverted childhood enjoyed by Astrid in Vimmerby at the beginning of 20th century.

Their adult life was also worlds apart - not just in terms of the places where they lived, Copenhagen and Stockholm. H.C. Andersen lived in a time and age where a rebel like Pippi Longstocking was absolutely inconceivable. Where as H.C. Andersen's fairy tales were a solid part of Astrid Lindgren's childhood.

And then again: despite the many things separating the two as individuals and writers we see many common denominators in their work and children's literature. These common stamps are obviously not conscious connections. They are bound by their status as great Nordic writers of literature for children whose work has been translated into many, many languages; currently yet another 153 more in H.C. Andersen's case and 93 [i] Astrid Lindgren's. That in itself points to the abundance present in their work, and when we compare the authorships and their artistic qualities, the likeness become evident.

The aim of this article is to identity a subject that has great potential in my opinion. Hopefully it will become the topic of extensive, systematic research. In the following major fields in the two writer's work will be compared. The focus is deliberately aimed at H.C. Andersen's fairy tales and stories rather than the extensive work mainly written to an adult audience.


An Intact Childlikeness

Astrid Lindgren and H.C. Andersen both made their débuts somewhat late in life. H.C. Andersen had reached the age of thirty by the time his first fairy tale was published, and albeit one is still young at that age compared to modern standards, one should consider that the he had been an active writer since the age of 17. Astrid Lindgren's début was even later: Like H.C. Andersen she had been writing since she was a child; at the age of 17 she became a journalist at Wimmerby Tidning, but it was not until she was around 35 she started writing her Pippi Longstocking stories. When Lindgren was 37 years old she won a book competition prize for her teen-age novel " Britt-Marie unburdens her heart ". Rabén & Sjögren launched the competition. By the time Lindgren had turned 38, her first book about the rebel Pippi was published.

In the light of the late débuts it seems a paradox that the most striking common stamps between the two writers are the conspicuous empathy with the child, an identification which may be rooted in an intact childishness. As Helene Høyrup writes: "Andersen was one of the first artist who refused to give up his childishness. [ii]

On February 10th 1834 Andersen writes from Rome to his friend Ludwig Müller after several parties had accused the poet of being too childish: "- What kind of change is it really that you want me to undergo? My sensitivity and my puerility has done me much good and it must vanish! ... My childlikeness ? It is my happiest blessing; if only I could keep it...". [iii]

Astrid Lindgren also describes the loss of childhood - but not childlikeness - as a tragic event:

"It was terrible realising that one had to stop playing at some point. I remember it vividly: we always played with the vicar's granddaughter when she was visiting during holidays. But one day we suddenly could no longer play; we tried but it no longer felt right. We were quite bewildered, what should we do now? That was the end of our childhood; we were around twelve or thirteen". [iv]

This tragedy ceased when the author herself had children - and that might also explain her late début:  "When I had my children I rediscovered my own playfulness. I want all sad teenagers to know that it will get fun again. How we played! We went to KarlbergPark where we climbed all the trees". [v] 

About her alter ego, Pomperipossa, Astrid Lindgren wrote: "And then she thought: Who knows: after all children may be as childish as I am; maybe they'll also enjoy reading my strange stories?"[vi]

 H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren adopts the child's point of view and mind-set: This may seem only natural since we are talking about children's literature but at that time - in the late 1940ies - it was no matter of course at all, and most certainly not when H.C. Andersen wrote his fairy tales. By 1826 he had written the poem "The Dying Child" - world literatures first attempt to view life from the child's perspective. In the poem the child is communicating to his mother. 



Narrative Style and Genre

An intact childishness is clearly applied and expressed in the narrative style. In" The Dying Child" the point of view is obvious and the wording also has a  distinctive way of addressing the recipient. As professor Torben Weinreich concluded in an interview in the newspaper Politiken:

"H.C. Andersen was very brave when addressing children directly using their language. "Have you been to the countryside? Have you ever seen a really old cottage?". A rather intimate style brilliantly suited for reading out loud. Only one other author has succeeded in using that style, and that is Astrid Lindgren". [vii]

H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren described in their respective memoirs how familiar they were with the oral narration tradition - both having known it since their childhood. These oral narration techniques, which they both used, are:

Directly addressing the reader: "Surely you know a magnifying glass, don't you...", [viii] "Have you ever seen a proper old wooden box ,...?", [ix] "I was thinking about Emil from Lönneberga, who lived at Katthult in country in Smaaland, ever heard of him? ". [x] It is the repetitions such as: "Away! Away! barked the old watchdog" in H.C. Andersen's "The Snow Man" (1861), the usage of verses from hymns " In the valley when the roses be/There the child Jesus you will see!" in "The Snow Queen" (1844), " Whew, whew, whew! On, on, on!" the refrain from the ditty" in "The Wind Tells about Valdemar Daae and His Daughters" (1859), and the title itself (repeated in the text) in Astrid Lindgren's fairy tale Mio, my Mio (1954). (Mio is also Italian for 'mine').
It is the simple syntax, which resembles the spoken language. These techniques contribute to setting up an intimate, personal relationship with the reader.

Endowing objects with spirit is typical for the fable and fairy tales - particularly found in H.C. Andersen's fairy tales and stories. All sorts of objects are personified: Collars, tin soldiers, top and ball, figurines, paviours, etc. This is not so much the case in Lindgren's universe  but never the less we do find some examples in stories like "Lustig-Gök", "Mirabell" and "Ingen rövere finns i skogen" [xi] , where dolls and the cuckoo - in its clock - respectively are personified.

The childlike mind-set is present in both worlds. At first the two tales "Little Ida's Flowers" [xii] and "The Brothers Lionheart" [xiii] seem very different; but they both employ fantastic components that are so distinct they can only be described as part of the modern fantasy genre; this mixture of realism and fantastic components were very characteristic to H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren. Both authorships generally display an informal approach to the concept of genre even H.C. Andersen's literature for children. They overlap different genres (fairy tales, stories, poems/songs, letters with an epic air to them) and often many different genres are present in one and the same story.

It has been suggested that H.C. Andersen's fairy tales have hints towards romanticism, modernism and even post-modernism. The two writers also share other ways of experimenting with style by employing endings that deconstruct the course of the plot resulting in readers recalling the tales as tragedies even when they actually have happy endings. This is true about "The Little Mermaid", in which the mermaid is not actually dying but adopted by the daughters of the air and is given the coveted immortality when her body is dissolving into foam. A Swedish reader wrote: 

"The scholars are often discussing the ending, many find it contrived and not a part of something organic in its structure. Others have defended that. If you ask me I choose to turn to my adolescent conclusion that truly wished the tale had ended with these words: "She cast one more lingering, half-fainting glance at the prince, and then threw herself from the ship into the sea, and thought her body was dissolving into foam". [xiv]

Several abridged versions do indeed end with these words. The same goes for Lindgren's fantastic epos about Bröderna Lejonhjärta (The Brothers Lionheart), where some readers find the ending, where the brothers face death together for the second time, unbearable tragic where as others pay attention to the comfort and promise awaiting them in another, new realm - Nangilima:

"I visited The Erica Institution one day and talked about children and death. A young psychologist declared that he could never read the ending of The Brother Lionheart to any child. It was cruel to let the brothers die twice. I replied: The more one dies, the easier it becomes. He did not seem to take comfort in my answer. When I came home the girl who played Ida in Katthult in the films about Emil telephoned and said: - I just read The Brother Lionheart and want to thank you for the happy end. Children are able to conceive it that way". [xv]

Quite a different stylistic common feature is the use of humour and irony. It is well known that H.C. Andersen applied humour in his fairy tales addressing the child and the adult reader alike. He was fully aware of this himself and often pointed it out. In Astrid Lindgren's case people are always assuming that the humour is addressing children only:
"In all of her books she only gives her child readers the humour they can relate to and delight in. Even her irony is never aimed at adults above the heads of child readers".[xvi]

However, I'd like to question that. In my opinion Lindgren's humour and irony is equally and frequently addressing both children and the adult reader. In Nya hyss av Emil i Lönneberga (1966) it reads:

"[Mrs Petrell, editor.] asked them for lunch at her house at 12 o'clock; she would most definitely be serving both fish pudding and blueberry soup. By 11 o'clock Petrell herself had some filet of veal and a large amount of marzipan cake, since there hardly was any fish pudding. And it would look terrible if she would swallow up almost all of it herself and leave her guests to starve, oh no, that would not do at all!" [xvii]

One thing that binds the two in style is that the humour is always taking sides with the weaker ones or the children. As Anette Oester Steffensen writes:

"At lot is written between the lines in these books and a child would not be able to grasp them all, but the adult reader naturally will, but not at the expense of the child. There are more than one level of comprehensibility, more ways to read and understand the text. The child is never made the laughing stock; it is always the adult who is on the receiving end". [xviii]

Lindgren's ironic account of the snobbish Mrs Petrell's motive for inviting the family from Katthult for lunch is an example. [xix] . There is an equivalent to it in Andersen's account of the master and mistress in" The Gardener and the Noble Family" (1872) and the farmer who cannot endure the sight of sextons in" Little Claus and Big Claus" (1835). [xx] Irony is being used as a part of the alliance between the storyteller and the child often exposing the hidebound and narrow-minded adults.  



Quite a few stories circle about longing. Sometimes the longing is aimed at another person who is separated from the main character by death or another seemingly insurmountable obstacle. There is Skorpan (Rusk) Lionheart's longing for his older brother, Jonathan, the mother longing for her dead child in "The Story of a Mother", "The Little Mermaid's" longing for the prince and Bosse/Mio's longing for his father in Mio, My Mio. The longing to be accepted is also present, longing 'to belong to' and find one's home, as we see it in"The Ugly Duckling" [xxi] , Rasmus på luffen [xxii] and Sunnanäng [xxiii] . There is also indefinable longing for 'something different', as in"The Fir Tree" (1844).
The longing represents the lack of something - this is very characteristic for the course of most fairy tales in general. [xxiv] Never the less, longing is present to a much greater extend in every detail of the work of both Andersen and Lindgren than in other fairy tales for children.

"Longing for something is part of a child's universe. The child longs for the one who is gone away, for Christmas, the summer holidays - for growing up. Great poets recall that longing even after having left their childhood behind". [xxv]

In direct continuation of the longing we find the preference to cast the lonely and abandoned child as the key figure. Andersen uses this type of key figure in fairy tales like " The Little Match Girl", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Snow Queen", " The Little Mermaid" and " The Travelling Companion". Lindgren uses it in stories like Mio, My Mio, The Brother Lionheart, Pippi Long Stocking, Rasmus på luffen and Kajsa Kavat [xxvi]:
"Grandma already noticed how brave Kajsa looked even at the age of three months lying there in her basket which was given to grandma one shiny day with a note asking if grandma please would take care of Kajsa, as there was no one else to do it." [xxvii]

Most of the children in these stories get an adult ally, a 'helper' with whom they often form a deep friendship. This goes for Johannes and his travelling companion; "Shall we keep each other company?" "With all my heart!" said Johannes ...", [xxviii] to The Little Match Girl"... old grandma was the only one who had been kind to her..." [xxix] and to Little Ida's student; "... What do they do that for," she asked of the student who sat on the sofa; she liked him very much ..." [xxx], the same goes for the orphan Rasmus and Oscar, the tramp in Rasmus på luffen, [xxxi] and for Emil and Alfred;
"Emil and Alfred swam in the Katthult lake among the white flowers in the cool water; the month was July and the crimson red moon in the sky shined down upon them. -You and me, Alfred, Emil said. -Yes, you and me, Emil, Alfred said. That is so!" [xxxii]

Another related and returning topic in these stories is death and how to overcome it with love. This approach to death is seen in "The Story of a Mother", " The Little Mermaid", The Brothers Lionheart, Mio, My Mio and Emil i Lönneberga (Emil drags the fatally ill Alfred through the blizzard to the doctor in Mariannelund). Death is often delineated as deliverance from the vexations of life on earth: This goes for H.C. Andersen in fairy tales like " The Little Match Girl" and "The Angel" [xxxiii] , and for Astrid Lindgren in stories like Sunnanäng [xxxiv] , Spelar min lind sjunger min näktergal [xxxv] , and "I Skymningslandet" [xxxvi] : In the last-mentioned land of dusk we find a parallel to the land of the dead with a repeated exorcising denial of pain and other earthly vexations and limitations:"Never mind that my leg hurts. 'It does not matter', Liljonkvast said, 'It does not matter in the land of dusk!'".

One may - and many does - wonder why a subject as heavy as death plays such a big role in H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren's literature for children. I shall not dwell on possible interpretations, but only conclude that both writers treat the subject in ways, which both understands, comforts and consoles the child. We see that in both " Little Ida's Flowers", and "The Brothers Lionheart", which both belong to the fantasy genre and share a common approach to death.
"Little Ida's Flowers" was written to Ida Thiele (1835), who was fatally ill as a child and also lost her mother. As Helene Høyrup writes: "Ida's perspective opens the connection between the world of fantasy and the child's frame of mind. Dead flowers become alive, and the child's angle gives new life to objects and (re)creates intimacy and reciprocity with the world". [xxxvii]
Both stories represent an unorthodox religious thematization of death. This unorthodox religiosity is, in general, typical in H.C. Andersen's authorship, but stands out in the case of Astrid Lindgren, who was a self-declared Agnostic. The explanation may at least partly be down to an evident distinction between one's personal belief on one hand, and on the other, a great sympathetic insight into the child's fantasy world and needs:

"Agnosticism and scepticism belong to the adult world in Lindgren's universe. Children need stories they can cling to if they have to confront death, stories that can alleviate their fears and anxiety, and she gave them such stories". [xxxviii]

Sympathetic insight and compassion are key words when it comes to the two Nordic writers. The urge to enrich children and make their lives happier has clearly been a strong motivating force for the literature of Astrid Lindgren as well as of H.C. Andersen. 


How The Rebels Were Received

This well-meaning, pleasant trait in both authorships does not mean that their contemporaries viewed them as edifying writers in terms of children. Quite the opposite; yet another common characteristic for the two is the very mixed reception from their contemporary public.

The initial publications for children - Fairy tales, Told for Children and Pippi Long Stocking, were faced with strong criticism - even accused of being demoralizing. There is a connection between the total lack of fear of using fictitious elements in the stories and the fact that both Andersen and Lindgren's earlier main characters (or protagonists) appeared as profound immoral rebels: The soldier in "The Tinder Box" and Pippi do not care about norms when it comes to satisfying their own immediate needs on behalf of others. The soldier chops off the head of the old witch despite their preceding agreement and lavishly spends all the money on luxury. Pippi goes power shopping in both candy and toy stores, and does not restrain herself when it comes to third helpings from the cakes served at an afternoon coffee party; it was the norm to let adults eat before children - seemingly disregarded by Pippi.
In general, we see a conspiracy against the adults and their norms, manners and rules of behaviour. We see it in Pippi Long Stocking as well as in " Little Ida's Flowers" and Lustig-Gök - and in many, many more of the two writer's stories and books where the balance of power between the generations are turned upside down.

"- It is a secret, the cuckoo said. It is a secret only told to children. Big people would never believe it anyway. They think all cuckoos in cuckoo clocks are made of wood. Ha, ha, ha, they are the ones made of wood; this is as true as my name is Lustig-Gök". [xxxix]

"...  But the lawyer did not like such jokes, and he would say as he had just said, "How can anyone put such nonsense into a child's head! What absurd fancies there are!"!" But to little Ida, all these stories which the student told her about the flowers, seemed very droll...".[xl]

Both authorships are abundant with characters that bring joy, adventure and rebellion to the Biedermeier ( English Regency style) and middle class lives, which consistently are described as stagnant and dull. In other words: no wonder it caused offence.

H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren revolutionised children's literature in their own day and age; they both strongly rebelled against prevalent norms in terms of form and content. For that reason they both met strong headwind and criticism. On the other hand, both writers experienced honour, recognition and acknowledgement in their own lifetime- in the case of Astrid indeed so, when she received the Hans Christian Andersen Award for Writing in 1958 - also known as the " Nobel Prize in Children's Literature".


Looking at Children's Literature From a New Angle

It is beyond doubt that Astrid Lindgren 'knew her Hans Christian Andersen´.  The heritage from Andersen is very explicit in her authorship. They both paved the way for entirely new types of children's literature. As Torben Weinreich notes in Information (August 8th 2006):
"H.C. Andersen sparked off an artistic intention in literature for children". Others followed but Astrid Lindgren was the first who entirely followed her own rules using her own unique expression and managed to integrate techniques and themes in universal, timeless art (for children).

Literature for children has been rather neglected. Originally its primary aim was to educate and many have been inclined to think that children's literature neither could nor should live up to the same artistic standards as art for adults. People made disparaging remarks about Hans Christian Andersen writing for children . Many (including himself) have strongly defended that the fairy tales and stories also address adult readers. Astrid Lindgren often encountered the very same criticism:

"Many wondered why Astrid Lindgren devoted herself to writing for children; why did she not write "proper" literature. Her answer was always the same: 'I wish to write to readers who creates miracles. And children do that, when they read". [xli]

Fortunately the perception of children's culture and literature as less valuable and interesting is undergoing a change. Children's culture is now more than ever the subject of independent research, as you can tell from monumental Danish publications such as Torben Weinreich's "The Story About Literature For Children - Danish Literature For Children Throughout 400 Years" (published August 2006) and Beth Juncker's doctoral thesis "About The Process - The Meaning of Aesthetics in Children's Culture" (June 2006).
Both are tokens of recognition and when it comes to art aimed at children, a whole list of aesthetic criteria is at work. Children are competent aesthetics - and as Beth Juncker points out towards in her thesis, this also goes for those books that become classics; they are characterized by using childlike, experimental elements in order to succeed in their aesthetic expression.


Odense and Vimmerby - Childhood Towns

It is only natural to investigate the backgrounds of these authors in which the childlike became so significant and to whom childhood was so essential. We know that in Odense, and they know it in Vimmerby, where more than hundred of thousands of visitors each year visit the amusement park Astrid Lindgrens Värld, where also the museum Astrid Lindgren Gården was located until recently.










The actual childhood home is near the park, in the area where the former vicarage Näs is located - later on in her old age Lindgren reconstructed it with original objects; it now appears almost like when she was eleven years old. The childhood home is still in the family's possession, however not accessible to the general public. The former vicarage has established a research centre: Astrid Lindgrens Näs. The new museum, the new Astrid Lindgren Gården opened May 1st 2007. The designer of the exhibitions Håkan Qvist has pointed out that the new exhibitions "bring out the humour in Astrid". [xlii]

It will be exciting and interesting to follow the development of Näs in the years to come. The management of this heritage naturally involves great responsibility. Odense and Vimmerby have been discussing to which extent it is possible to maintain the natural environment surrounding the childhood homes. A lot is at stake, as it is not possible to recreate the original environment.

The work of writers is naturally open to continuous research, when the main parts of the original manuscripts are preserved. A thorough analysis could seek to answer the question: what are the many common denominators in their authorships down to: Is it a cultural context or typical of the Nordic countries? Did H.C. Andersen and Astrid Lindgren have anything besides the 'intact childlikeness' as a common, underlying motif for their work? Or is something entirely different going on?

I hope this article has suggested which perspectives a comparative analysis may be open to both in relation to general artistic qualities in children's literature and in terms of a better understanding of the two authorships. A comparison will open new aspects in both authorships, which otherwise could have been less obvious. 



[i] Cf. e-mail from the Lindgren expert Lena Törnqvist (Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm): Regarding Astrid Lindgren's translations it is a question of definition - what is a language? Some weeks ago I heard this definition "A language is a dialect with an army", quite horrid but thought-provoking. That is not the way we have counted when we state that Astrid Lindgren has been translated to more than 90 languages (93 I think is the latest number). We count Moldavian as a separate language, not a Romanian dialect, Serbian and Croatian separately as well as Bokmål and Nynorsk. Likewise, not all the languages are published in print; Latin i.e. is just the first chapter of Ronja Röverdotter which a student translated as part of a paper, etc. I found one just the other day and that was Interlingua, an artificial language that I have not heard of before. But it was in published form. There is not one of her works that has been translated to all of these languages. Pippi is the most widespread literary figure, she exists in appr. 65 languages according to my informations, sometimes just in the format of picturebook.

[ii] Høyrup, Helene: H.C. Andersen og børnelitteraturen, 2005, p.6.

[iii] Breve fra Hans Christian Andersen , I-II. Published by C. St. A. Bille og Nikolaj Bøgh. C. A. Reitzel, 1878.

[iv] Lindgren, Astrid in Strömstedt, Margareta: Astrid Lindgren - en levnadsteckning, 1977.

[v] Lindgren, Astrid in Ljunggren, Kerstin: Läs om Astrid Lindgren, 1992.

[vi] Expressen, 10. marts 1976. Astrid Lindgren: Pomeripossa i Monismanien.

[vii] Politiken 5. august 2006. Lotte Thorsen: Nu skal du høre..., interview with Torben Weinreich.

[viii] Andersen, H.C.: Vanddraaben, 1848.

[ix] Andersen, H.C.: Hyrdinden og Skorstensfejeren, 1845.

[x] Lindgren, Astrid: Emil i Lönneberga, 1963.

[xi] Lindgren, Astrid: All published in Nils Karlsson-Pyssling, 1949.

[xii] Andersen, H.C.: 1835.

[xiii] Lindgren, Astrid: 1973.

[xiv] H.C. Andersens underbare resor i Sverige, ed. Ivo Holmqvist, Ulla Lundqvist: Längtan är barnets arvedel, p. 97.

[xv] Expressen, 23. maj 1972. Astrid Lindgren.

[xvi] Metcalf, Eva-Maria: Famous Swedes: Astrid Lindgren, p. 4. www.sweden.se

[xvii] Lindgren, Astrid: Nya hyss av Emil i Lönneberga, 1966.

[xviii] Steffensen, Anette Øster: H.C. Andersen og Astrid Lindgren, www.cfb.dk, unpag.., without year.

[xix] Lindgren, Astrid: Nya hyss av Emil i Lönneberga, 1966.

[xx] Andersen, H.C.: Little Claus and Big Claus, 1835.

[xxi] Andersen, H.C., 1843.

[xxii] Lindgren, Astrid, 1956.

[xxiii] Lindgren, Astrid, 1959. In Danish Søndeneng (2003).

[xxiv] See also the russian formalist Vladimir Propp and his term 'lack'.

[xxv] H.C. Andersens underbare resor i Sverige, ed. Ivo Holmqvist, Ulla Lundqvist: Längtan är barnets arvedel, p. 90.

[xxvi] Lindgren, Astrid, 1950. In Danish Kitte Kry (1968).

[xxvii] Ibid.

[xxviii] Andersen, H.C.: The Travelling Companien, 1835.

[xxix] Andersen, H.C.: The Little Match Girl, 1845.

[xxx] Andersen, H.C.:  Little Ida's Flowers, 1835.

[xxxi] Lindgren, Astrid: 1956.

[xxxii] Lindgren, Astrid: 1963.

[xxxiii] Andersen, H.C.: 1843.

[xxxiv] Lindgren, Astrid: 1959.

[xxxv] Lindgren, Astrid, 1984. In Danish Suser min lind, synger min nattergal (same year).

[xxxvi] I Nils Karlsson-Pyssling, 1949. In Danish Tusmørkelandet.

[xxxvii] Høyrup, Helene: H.C. Andersen og børnelitteraturen, 2005, p.5.

[xxxviii] Metcalf, Eva-Maria: Famous Swedes: Astrid Lindgren, p. 9.

[xxxix] Lustig-Gök in "Nils Karlsson-Pyssling", 1949, p. 64.

[xl] H.C. Andersens eventyr, DSL, bd. 1 (1963), p. 45.

[xli] Törnqvist, Lena on the homepage of Astrid Lindgren Gården, http://www.alg.se/astrid.html

[xlii] Interview with Håkan Qvist on the homepage of Astrid Lindgren Gården, http://www.alg.se/nyhet.html  



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